Islam was introduced to Indonesia in the 8th century by Arab traders who intermarried with the local women. By the end of the 13th century, Islam has been spread. There were such dominant Muslim sultanates as Samudra Pasai in northern Sumatra, Demak and Mataram in Central Java, Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku islands to the east. In the 15th century, the "nine saints" (Wali Songo) played historic role in the spread of Islam in Java. At the end of the 16th century, Islam became the dominant religion, ahead of Buddhism and Hinduism. The eastern islands remained largely animist until adopting Islam from the 17th and 18th centuries.

Islam now remains the dominant religion in Indonesia with the largest number of believers in the world (over 200 million followers, mostly Sunnis), account for 90% of Indonesia's population and 13% of the world's Muslims.

Islam is a source of artistic inspiration. Wayangs represent love or satirical epic tales of Islamic influence or those pioneers of Islam in Indonesia.